There is a plethora of Maple Hardwood species as well as specific classifications.
Ambrosia Maple Hardwood
Ambrosia Maple is not a species per se, but is instead a reference to species which have been affected by ambrosia beetles burrowing within the wood. Infestation causes discoloration, but this is not always necessarily a bad thing. In fact, there are some worldly cultures which consider Ambrosia Maple to be a prized rarity due to the unique colorations.
Bigleaf Maple Hardwood (Acer Macrophyllum)
This North American species thrives at a height of one hundred feet along the Pacific coasts. Starting out as white, as the wood matures it changes to become either a dark yellow or red, though generally speaking it sports a red heartwood either way. There are variations of the wood which are rarer than others, usually pertaining to the quality of the grain and whether or not it bears a quilted patterning. Used in veneer as well as pulp, Bigleaf Maple can be used for crating but is also used in instruments and other unique products.
Birdseye Maple Hardwood
Another classification which is not an actual subspecies, Birdseye Maple is an accurate name describing a surface design found in the wood. It can be found in multiple species, but the most common to sport the look is the Sugar Maple.
Black Maple Hardwood (Acer Nigrum)
At a little over one hundred feet tall, this species is named in a very misleading manner. The wood is in fact almost completely white, with the darker forms being yellow or red. These darker forms are often used in parquet floors such as those seen in basketball or dance halls. The wood can also be used to make pulp or veneers, with smaller products running the gamut from cutting boards and workbenches to baseball bats and musical instruments.
Boxelder Maple Hardwood (Acer Negundo)
At heights of around eighty feet, this North American species is also called Manitoba Maple. Native to the easternmost states, the pale wood bears tints of gold or even green. Despite the smooth and desirable texture, Boxelder Maple does not see many standard applications of lumber. It is used for more decorative purposes and is not generally sold en masse.
Field Maple Hardwood (Acer Campestre)
These trees are rather small, growing at a little over fifty feet. Growth populations exist primarily in European regions and the wood is usually white or creamy though can be slightly colored. Used in veneers and instruments of a musical nature, the most frequent uses of the wood revolve around floors and furniture.
Queensland Maple Hardwood (Flindersia)
Proper to its name, this species is indigenous to the Australian region of Queensland and is a standard one hundred feet tall with a three-foot diameter. Generally hued with either red or gold qualities, the coloring becomes more saturated as the wood grows older and is more exposed to the sun. This lustrous and roughly textured species sports a fairly wavy grain pattern seen in its veneers, while it is also generally used to make guns and musical items as well as cabinets and other assorted furniture. Its growth region of Australia is also the most common location for its use, with the species seen infrequently in the United States.
Quilted Maple Hardwood
This is the third classification on this list which does not refer to a subspecies. Quilted Maple is aptly ascribed to woods with a quilted grain pattern. This is more common in softwoods than in hardwoods, but both exist with some regularity.
Red Maple Hardwood (Acer Rubrum)
Growing in the eastern states at heights of one hundred feet, this species can be a medium red though also comes in a paler shade of white. The texture is smooth as with many other species, with a variety of grain patterns to be found. Straighter patterns are more common and therefore also more commonly stocked, but the wood in general is useful in both pulps and veneers as well as crates and musical instruments. It can also be used for a host of other special products, especially depending upon the grain.
Silver Maple Hardwood (Acer Saccharinum)
This is not a greyish-hued wood as the name might suggest, but rather runs from light yellow to dark red. Smoothly textured, Silver Maple grows at a little over one hundred feet tall and is used in pulping and veneers as well as crating and more unique items. It is popular in musical instruments as are many other species, especially when richly colored. It can also grow in a pale white which, when lustrous, is more fitting to its name.
Soft Maple Hardwood
While not technically softwoods, trees in this classification are not quite as hard as other maple trees. The classification exists mostly to differentiate these subspecies from Hard Maple trees with similar attributes.
Spalted Maple Hardwood
This is similar to the Ambrosia Maple classification in that it indicates a decaying state of the wood. Spalted Maple is usually processed to remove the moisture so that the decaying stops and the wood is preserved as is.
Striped Maple Hardwood (Acer Pensylvanicum)
This very small species of North American tree only reaches a height of about thirty feet and is only eight inches across. Sometimes referred to as Moosewood, the tree is between five and ten meters tall. True to its name, the species bears stripes of white and green. The tree itself is grown often for its attractiveness, but the soft wood does not lend itself much to construction. The wood is also prone to cause dermatitis, limiting the utility of the species.
Sugar Maple Hardwood (Acer Saccharum)
Indigenous to North America, this northeastern species grows to a little over one hundred feet and is very white or creamy in color. Sometimes the coloring takes on a red or gold tint, with the small pores and smooth texture resulting in a clean look to the wood. Also referred to as Hard Maple or Rock Maple, this species can be used in flooring for bowling alleys and flooring for arena sports as well as smaller products such as butchering blocks, baseball bats, and musical instruments. Like several other species, it is a likely candidate to be made into either pulp or veneer.
Sycamore Maple Hardwood (Acer Pseudoplatanus)
Also called European Sycamore, this species grows to a 4-foot diameter at a height of 115 feet. Growing throughout the European continent as well as regions in the southwest of Asia, Sycamore Maple can be used in veneer and pulp in additions to floors, workbenches, instruments and sporting equipment. It is also used in some more unique items when preferred by the manufacturer.